Maybe it’s time to break the bro-code

Allan Alaalatoa Columnist

By Allan Alaalatoa, Allan Alaalatoa is a Roar Expert New author!


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Popular article! 6,188 reads

    We’ve all heard it: ‘man up’, ‘grow a pair’, ‘bros before hoes’.

    It’s part of the unofficial and undocumented ‘bro code’ that dictates the behaviour of some men and boys.

    Violate the ‘bro code’ and you’ll be accused of ‘doggin the lads’.

    They’re popular expressions that paint a clear picture for an impressionable young bloke about what makes ‘a man’.

    From an early age, we hear this kind of language in the schoolyard, in the media, in the company of mates and on the sporting field.

    They are so commonly thrown around, that they’ve become a part of our everyday conversation – normalised by overuse.

    The problem is they’re toxic.

    Terms like ‘bros before hoes’ only work to encourage guys to value their relationships with ‘the bros’, over those with girls, and may make them more likely to excuse their mate’s bad behaviour towards women.

    I’m not proud to say that I have played into this conversation without even realising.

    I was recently asked if I’d ever been with a group of mates who’ve made disrespectful remarks about women, and if I’d spoken up.

    While I was confident that I had never directly participated, on reflection, as a younger lad I had definitely heard some things I’d shrugged off as a bit of ‘schoolboy banter’.

    Admittedly, I grew up thinking it was just casual chat that didn’t mean anything and regrettably, I fell victim to the pack mentality.

    Although now I would never let that kind of behaviour slide, I wanted to be honest in my response. I know how hard it can be to call out bad behaviour, especially if it’s coming from one of your mates.

    According to a survey conducted by The Line campaign, more than one in four (27 per cent) of young men say it doesn’t bother them if they’re with a group of friends and someone puts girls down by making jokes or comments about them.

    I’d love to say I was surprised by that stat, but there’s intense pressure not to be a loser or a self-righteous hero; there’s always a worry you could lose your spot among the boys if you step out of line.

    I know in rugby, these types of attitudes and behaviours have historically boxed guys who don’t fit the ‘macho mould’ out of the game, not to mention discouraging women and girls.

    Rugby should be for everyone and thankfully a lot is being done to make sure that’s the case.

    It’s not right to insult girls ‘for fun’ and there is a risk that speaking up against a mate’s disrespectful chat may cost you your friendship with him.

    But at the end of the day, if you’ve tried to educate your mate and you’re still not getting through to him, you need to ask yourself if you’re hanging out with the wrong people.

    As clichéd as it sounds, I believe it only takes one person to speak up before things start to change.

    If you say something, even if it’s a ‘hey bro, that’s not cool’ or you pull that one guy aside to have a private convo, you could get him to think about the negative impact of his words and eventually change the perception of your group.

    As an Ambassador for The Line, I want to encourage young people to be aware of what they’re saying and to acknowledge that they can positively influence others.

    In order to stamp out disrespectful and sexist chat, we need an army of people to call it out when we see or hear it.

    November 25 to December 10 marks 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence worldwide and it’s a time for all of us to think about what we can do to challenge a culture that disrespects women.

    So, my fellow bros, maybe not everyone is going to agree with your beliefs, but you’ve got to stand up for what’s right.

    Speak up, even if it means ‘doggin the lads’.

    Allan Alaalatoa
    Allan Alaalatoa

    Allan Alaalatoa is an Australian rugby union player for the Wallabies and proud Ambassador for Our Watch?s youth campaign, The Line.

    The Line is a national, evidence-based campaign for 12 to 20-year olds that encourages young people to develop healthy and equal relationships with a view to preventing violence against women and their children.

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    The Crowd Says (212)

    • November 30th 2017 @ 4:16am
      John said | November 30th 2017 @ 4:16am | ! Report

      Excellent article!

      Thanks Allan.

      • November 30th 2017 @ 4:57am
        Connor33 said | November 30th 2017 @ 4:57am | ! Report

        I second that. Well done.

      • November 30th 2017 @ 11:27am
        PiratesRugby said | November 30th 2017 @ 11:27am | ! Report

        Thanks Allan.

      • November 30th 2017 @ 6:44pm
        Jumbo said | November 30th 2017 @ 6:44pm | ! Report

        I think it’s time to man up and stop leaving yhe brothers hanging. That’s the problem with aus rugby.

        • December 1st 2017 @ 4:25pm
          republican said | December 1st 2017 @ 4:25pm | ! Report

          …..the only problem with Oz Rugby is that it hardly resonates with the average sporting punter here.
          It never did & it never will.
          The code exists here by virtue of the ex pat Kiwi & PI diaspora, pure and simple…….

      • December 2nd 2017 @ 5:48pm
        Realist said | December 2nd 2017 @ 5:48pm | ! Report

        Thanks Allan

        Any plans for another virtuous & self-gratifying sermon anytime soon?

        Stop worrying about our attitudes to women and spend some more time on your scrummaging – you’ve gone backwards this international season while admiring the view from your ivory tower.

        • December 4th 2017 @ 12:34pm
          Joe King said | December 4th 2017 @ 12:34pm | ! Report

          “virtuous & self-gratifying sermon”?!

          I didn’t get that impression. My impression was he recognised the mistakes he’s made in the past and how he’s learning from them. Allan writes: “Admittedly, I grew up thinking it was just casual chat that didn’t mean anything and regrettably, I fell victim to the pack mentality.”

          “Stop worrying about our attitudes to women and spend some more time on your scrummaging”

          Does it have to be an either/or? why can’t it be a both/and?

          Be honest, Realist. What do you care more about?

    • November 30th 2017 @ 6:08am
      Andy said | November 30th 2017 @ 6:08am | ! Report

      Well done great article

    • November 30th 2017 @ 6:16am
      Marty said | November 30th 2017 @ 6:16am | ! Report

      Totally agree, well written Allan. I’d be surprised if many men hadn’t heard such banter in their lives, especially in those impressionable years. The sad thing is that the pack culture, for want of a better word, has allowed such behaviour to be deemed acceptable due to the lack of strong resistence & leadership. Its great that you are standing up and giving a strong message to the community. Lets hope more men, especially those who mentor and supervise impressionable young men, stand up too and recognise the importance of inclusiveness. Its up to all of us to make a difference. Cheers

    • November 30th 2017 @ 7:17am
      Cynical Play said | November 30th 2017 @ 7:17am | ! Report

      In 2015, 80 Australian women died violently. Murdered. 80% was domestic violence. In 2016 it was similar. Incredible statistics. HUGE problem.

      Domestic violence data in Australia showed that one in six women and one in 20 men have experienced at least one incidence of violence from a current or former partner since the age of 15.

      Below are some more sobering facts:

      On average, at least one woman a week is killed by a partner or former partner in Australia.
      One in three Australian women has experienced physical violence, since the age of 15.
      One in five Australian women has experienced sexual violence.
      One in four Australian women has experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner.
      One in four Australian women has experienced emotional abuse by a current or former partner.
      Women are at least three times more likely than men to experience violence from an intimate partner.
      Women are five times more likely than men to require medical attention or hospitalisation as a result of intimate partner violence, and five times more likely to report fearing for their lives.
      Of those women who experience violence, more than half have children in their care.
      Violence against women is not limited to the home or intimate relationships. Every year in Australia, over 300,000 women experience violence – often sexual violence – from someone other than a partner.
      Eight out of ten women aged 18 to 24 were harassed on the street in the past year.
      Young women (18 – 24 years) experience significantly higher rates of physical and sexual violence than women in older age groups.
      There is growing evidence that women with disabilities are more likely to experience violence.
      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience violence at higher rates than non-Indigenous women.

      And the figures for assault of young women socially (ie not in the home) are as alarming, but many do not report sexual or verbal assault (ie at a party)

      Allan should be congratulated for putting the issue on the page. The sports and other leaders can play a huge role in changing community expectations and encouraging every man to call out poor comments and behaviour against women when we wee it.

      I see the derogatory language start form a young age, at school, seemingly innocent enough. In the playground. Things are reinforced if it is not challenged, and it should be challenged then, by the father or brothers, or older boys/men. It is reinforced on-line, on the pornography sites some of these young men get to see. I know with my own son who is 8 years old, I try to consistently teach how to talk to his sister and to girls at school; what resect is and what is respectful. But he still comes home with some comments from school that floor me, and it shows he listens to his peer group more than me.

      Calling out behaviour includes calling out public figures who are revoltingly misogynistic like Mark Latham, Alan Jones and Sam Newman. Latham’s bullying of Rosie Batty (whose son was murdered by her partner as a final act of violence to get to her) is one of the worst things I have seen.

      This site gets nearly 500 daily posts for some ROAR articles. I wonder how many Allan’s will get?

      Come on men. lets teach our boys and call our friends out and help make this community greater and safer for our daughters, sisters, etc, because is a tragic reality, and we’ve all got skin in the game.

      • November 30th 2017 @ 7:43am
        Adsa said | November 30th 2017 @ 7:43am | ! Report

        Cynic for once I am in agreeance with you, yours and Alan’s post outline the huge problem in male circles of society. It starts out as harmless banter between mates but the undercurrent can lead to something more sinister. Thanks to you both.

      • November 30th 2017 @ 8:41am
        Crash Ball2 said | November 30th 2017 @ 8:41am | ! Report

        Very well said CP. And great article Alan.

      • Roar Guru

        November 30th 2017 @ 8:55am
        Machooka said | November 30th 2017 @ 8:55am | ! Report

        Onya Cynical… well said buddy.

      • November 30th 2017 @ 9:30am
        nugget said | November 30th 2017 @ 9:30am | ! Report

        You’re right about calling out public figures. Alan Jones’ appalling misogynistic rants about Julia Gillard are a blot on the nation. His His ‘ditch the witch’ and calling for her to be taken out and drowned (another witch reference) showed his utter contempt for her as a woman. And using his microphone drone to urge people on in this was an example of gross bullying.

      • Roar Guru

        November 30th 2017 @ 10:41am
        PeterK said | November 30th 2017 @ 10:41am | ! Report

        First of all I am against any physical violence or intimidation or abuse.

        Some of those stats need to be put in perspective.

        The reality is no matter what education or awareness campaigns or how society changes its values there will always be a number of psychotic / homicidal / sociopaths men out there. Some of that happens to be biologically based.

        Take the number of deaths a year. What 52 a year.

        There are 8 million households in australia. Say 5.2 Million have a man in them. That is a rate of 0.001 percent.

        There are 240 murders a year in australia, 2/3’s of them are men.

        The focus should be the rates and areas that will improve the most, that the offenders are not a very small minority of the population.

        • November 30th 2017 @ 11:29am
          northerner said | November 30th 2017 @ 11:29am | ! Report

          Women are far more likely to be the victims of domestic violence than men, and because they’re weaker physically, far more likely to be seriously injured or killed. Those are facts too. And for every out and out psychopath out there, there are three or four or ten people who think that belittling women, maybe giving them a slap from time to time, is okay – not because they’re inherently bad people but because they simply don’t know any better. Those are the people that these sorts of things need to reach.

          • Roar Guru

            November 30th 2017 @ 11:47am
            PeterK said | November 30th 2017 @ 11:47am | ! Report

            totally agree, that is the type of area that should be addressed since it will have more effect.

            The murder aspect is a red herring since it is so rare, and regardless of where it is done men are murdered 2/3’s of the time.


            At least one in three victims of family violence is male
            One male is a victim of domestic homicide every 10 days
            Almost one in four young people are aware of their mum/stepmum hitting their dad/stepdad
            Male and female victims of reported domestic assault receive very similar numbers and types of injuries
            Men who have experienced partner violence are 2 to 3 times more likely than women to have never told anybody about it
            Post-separation, similar proportions of men and women report experiencing physical violence including threats by their former spouse
            More facts and stats here.

            • November 30th 2017 @ 1:01pm
              Edward said | November 30th 2017 @ 1:01pm | ! Report

              These stats are not accurate – not even close.

              According to research from The Mens Referral service in Victoria, the data say a couple of things, according to my wife, a senior policy lawyer working in family violence: Generally it’s said that in about 10-15% of family violence incidents women are the primary aggressors. When you probe this further, there are a couple of things to consider.

              What we know about men who self-identify as victims of family violence, is that 55% of them have criteria (called red flags under a primary aggressor identification rubric) strongly suggesting that they are in fact the primary aggressor. 

              Those criteria include having a violent criminal history, having previously been named on and breached a family violence intervention order and victim blaming behaviours e.g. “She’s crazy… She deserved it etc.”

              Most of the other 45% who self-identified as victims were in male same-sex relationships. 

              It’ s also important to say there is an epidemic of police wrongly naming female victims of family violence as the primary aggressor. According to multiple data sources, this is happening in about 1 in 5 of all the family violence orders issued in magistrates courts in Australia. 

              The reasons for the misidentification include police failures to interview the woman privately or at all (in some cases the women are so badly injured by the man’s assault that they cannot be interviewed – in one example a woman lying unconscious in an ambulance was identified first by her male partner {who inflicted the violence} and then by attending police who interviewed only him as the primary aggressor).

              These data are fairly new in the family violence space in Australia. They paint a very different picture than the proposition put forth by ‘men’s rights’ organisations, and the public narrative.

              So far, from the data that we have seen there is a small percentage of women who are truly primary aggressors. It is likely to be less than 5%, more likely to be around 2-3%  (this is a data trail that we are still following, final numbers will be shared when the work is done). Most of those women present with complex mental health issues. 

              The flip side of the data is that at in at least 95% (more likely to be 98%) of family violence the primary aggressor is a man.

              This is very confronting for men, and something that we need to listen to and hold in our hearts as we men stand up and confront every man in our social sphere about the slightest suppression of or disrespect towards women (speaking over women in the slightest way is a biggie here).

              You see, men are more powerful than women. We are bigger and more powerful in our bodies. A vitally important realisation for me around this was a discussion with my wife. In my first marriage, my then-wife hit me, punched me. But I was never scared for my life. 

              Women are scared for their life of men. Because men kill a lot of women, and rape and assault a lot more, and direct unwelcome sexual attention towards all women. I don;t know a woman in my life who hasn’t had unwelcome sexual attention from a man, ranging from catcalling (I used to feel entitled to do that), up to groping, pressure to date etc.).

              In around 75-80% of family violence incidences, sexual violence (including rape, and other types sexual assault). The common thread between this and the #metoo issue is mens entitlement to abuse their power with women.

              This is why men have to step up and take responsibility, to be active in addressing this issue., and why MKP, if it is worth it’s salt as an organisation, will do the same.

              • November 30th 2017 @ 1:10pm
                ethan said | November 30th 2017 @ 1:10pm | ! Report

                Just curious, how do they define “primary aggressor?”

              • Roar Guru

                November 30th 2017 @ 1:11pm
                PeterK said | November 30th 2017 @ 1:11pm | ! Report

                You realise that male children are included in those stats of mine that say 1/3 victims are male. The stats shown except for one are for males not men, which I believe are accurate.

                Also you are exaggerating.

                There simply are not many murders in australia, and out of those 2/3’s are men who are murdered. In that way men have more to fear from men than women.

                Also you go to the level of men talking over women. Does the same apply that women shouldn’t talk over men?

              • Roar Guru

                November 30th 2017 @ 1:21pm
                Kashmir Pete said | November 30th 2017 @ 1:21pm | ! Report

                Sorry Edward

                I’ve read a lot of research papers in this area during coursework.

                ‘damned lies & statistics’ comes to mind.

                Reading the research, it is so easy to see how certain figures are ‘cherry-picked’ or plain misleading. High profile research in Australia, on which changes were most recently made to Australia’s Family Law Act, has resulted in key experts in North America calling out the errors in that research in Australia. The same errors I could spot as a “layman”.

                Evil happens, but not because it is either an inherent or exclusive trait to the male gender. I really take issue with a lot of the info you have outlined above. I say that politely and respectfully, even if that might not appear the case.


              • November 30th 2017 @ 3:05pm
                AnD said | November 30th 2017 @ 3:05pm | ! Report

                Women are not far more likely to be DV victims than men. There’s a recording gap. Funnily enough, when surveys are structured properly, they find that women are perpetrators at almost identical rates as men. It’t a myth that men don’t suffer DV rates the same as women. Plenty of longitudinal studies that dispel those notions.
                If you look at the likely causes of DV, being male isn’t one of them. In fact the most likely signifier that a woman will ebcome the victim of DV is that she is a perpetrator of DV.
                The issue is framed incorrectly, which is why there’s been no real progress on addressing family violence in 30 years.
                If we really want to address the underlying issues, then we need to look at the issue holistically.

              • Roar Rookie

                November 30th 2017 @ 3:19pm
                piru said | November 30th 2017 @ 3:19pm | ! Report

                Edward seems to have some knowledge of this issue.

                Perhaps you could advise by what authority or research you deem his figures incorrect?

              • November 30th 2017 @ 10:59pm
                Rhys Bosley said | November 30th 2017 @ 10:59pm | ! Report

                I don’t know whose statistics to believe, but I do know that I had a neighbour who had the skin on his chest scalded with boiling water, the culmination of a long history of drunken abuse by his female partner that finally got him to leave the relationship. Fortunately they didn’t have kids so was able to cut ties easily, otherwise it would have been a lot harder. I tend to think that the fact that he is allegedly in a statistical minority was pretty damn irrelevant to that bloke and I don’t see why his situation should be considered to be less of a priority than that of a woman

                Frankly I just don’t get the mentality, nobody wants to see violence against women, but why would people want to ignore or minimise the experiences of another human beings in that situation, just because they are a man? It is a pretty horrible attitude.

              • December 1st 2017 @ 6:35am
                aussikiwi said | December 1st 2017 @ 6:35am | ! Report

                Except that noone is doing that, Rhys. No one is saying men are not sometimes victims, and there will always be anecdotal examples.

                However, because men have greater physical and economic power, and because of a range of cultural factors, some of which are referenced in the article, domestic violence against women, by men, is by far the most common form of dv.

                An important point re attitudes and culture is that rape in marriage was not even criminalised until the 1970s and 1980s, with Queensland being the last state to do so in 1989. In some countries eg India it is still not a crime.

              • Roar Rookie

                December 1st 2017 @ 11:20am
                piru said | December 1st 2017 @ 11:20am | ! Report

                Frankly I just don’t get the mentality, nobody wants to see violence against women, but why would people want to ignore or minimise the experiences of another human beings in that situation, just because they are a man?

                Rhys no one reasonable wants to ignore it, but it’s clear that these are different issues.

                You see it daily – someone brings up a movement/campaign/whatever in regards to violence against women and you are guaranteed to see comments (from men) as follows:

                * Why are you attacking men, I never done nothing (no one is attacking all men, and if you feel attacked, perhaps there’s a reason)

                * It happens to men too (of course it does, but does bringing it up here address that or just belittle the original post?)

                * Feminists just hate men (I don’t even know where this one is coming from, but it’s getting worse lately – regardless, see point one)

              • December 1st 2017 @ 11:56am
                Rhys Bosley said | December 1st 2017 @ 11:56am | ! Report

                “Except that noone is doing that, Rhys. No one is saying men are not sometimes victims, and there will always be anecdotal examples.”

                That wasn’t what I said. I said that men are being having their experiences ignored or minimised. I.e. yes it is happening but we don’t care enough about it to offer these men the sort of support and services that women get. Personally, I think that stinks and it especially stinks coming from other men. The mentality seems to be,

                “I’m ok mate, I have a good relationship so I’ll join White Ribbon and feel good about myself telling other men to adjust their attitude to women. But I don’t care about what happens to some other bloke who lucked out, landed an abusive missus and faces the prospect of just copping it or being separated from his kids and being bled dry. Too bad, so sad”.

                None of this should mean that anybody should consider that addressing violence against women should be conditional on addressing violence against men, the commitment to that should be absolute. However, I happen to think that being a man also involves having compassion for other men in rotten situations and sometimes that involves challenging injustices that keep them there, even if it is unpopular to do so.

                From what I can see there are a lot of men failing in that regard.

              • December 1st 2017 @ 12:10pm
                Rhys Bosley said | December 1st 2017 @ 12:10pm | ! Report


                “Rhys no one reasonable wants to ignore it, but it’s clear that these are different issues.”

                Then clearly there is no one reasonable in power, because in practical terms it does get ignored or at the very best begrudgingly acknowledged but minimised. Edward’s use of the Men’s Referal Service stats to try and dismiss of the One in Three Campaign’s claims is a prime example of that, despite that organisation being supported by some very reputable people. Take a look and make up your own mind.


                And I would strongly suggest that the only reason that we have seen a tiny little bit of movement towards recognition, is because people make all of those arguments that you are complaining about. I personally hate the “he said, she said” megaphone nature of this debate, but if it is the only thing that has worked for people who care about men’s issues, what else are they supposed to do? The sad thing is that it could be resolved more productively to help all victims of abuse, but for the existing DV establishment adopting more open minds.

              • Roar Rookie

                December 1st 2017 @ 12:39pm
                piru said | December 1st 2017 @ 12:39pm | ! Report

                I’m not denying there is an issue

                What I am saying is that forums like this are not the place to bring it up – it just looks like deflection and / or obfuscation.

              • December 1st 2017 @ 1:28pm
                Rhys Bosley said | December 1st 2017 @ 1:28pm | ! Report

                “What I am saying is that forums like this are not the place to bring it up – it just looks like deflection and / or obfuscation.”

                Only to those who choose to take it that way, people who choose to be more open minded will be able to balance the two threads of discussion up.

              • Roar Rookie

                December 1st 2017 @ 1:34pm
                piru said | December 1st 2017 @ 1:34pm | ! Report

                True, but when was the last time you saw the men’s side of the issue brought up on it’s own (I recognise that this is in fact part of your point, and I agree).

                By only invoking the men’s issue as a response to the women’s one, it belittles both.

              • December 13th 2017 @ 12:47pm
                guttsy said | December 13th 2017 @ 12:47pm | ! Report

                “has resulted in key experts in North America calling out the errors in that research in Australia.”

                Much of the research s cherry picked in the Oz, NZ, US, Canada and the UK, the so called Anglosphere countries. And it might be worth pointing out that it is not too hard to pick holes in the US research on which the US base some of their social policy and law changes.

                It shouldn’t be surprising to point out that the US and Australia, while they have many similarities also have many differences. And what is approapriate for Australia in regards to social policy/law might not be appropriate for the US. And vice versa.

                A rather cynical reading of this situation might lead one to believe that the elites devise what social policy/laws that they want and then they fund the research (and the media) to support those social policy/law changes. I don’t think this thinking is at all unjustified. Which might be all well and good if they (the elites) new what they were doing, but time and time again over the years changes have proved that (at best) the people implenting these changes have no idea (to put it nicely). The only justification I can see for many of the approaches taken over the years are the creation/maintenace of defacto segregation (between groups between black and white or between this group and that group) and/or maintaining elite groups in their positions of power.

        • November 30th 2017 @ 12:59pm
          Edward said | November 30th 2017 @ 12:59pm | ! Report

          Stop minimizing this terrible situation. Become part of the solution, rather than part of the problem, which what you are right now…

          • Roar Guru

            November 30th 2017 @ 1:22pm
            PeterK said | November 30th 2017 @ 1:22pm | ! Report

            What rubbish and so offensive of you.

            My suggestion is to focus on the areas that will have the most effect.

            Giving facts of the number of murders and which gender BTW is not minimising anything.

            • Roar Rookie

              December 1st 2017 @ 1:51am
              Paulo said | December 1st 2017 @ 1:51am | ! Report

              I can see where you are coming Peter, I think. If we focus on Murder stats, we miss a huge opportunity to focus on the non-murder instances, which I would say are orders of magnitude above murder rates. why use the most extreme measure, if we want to address the broader issues, to prevent these kinds of stats across the board.

              • Roar Guru

                December 1st 2017 @ 8:16am
                PeterK said | December 1st 2017 @ 8:16am | ! Report


      • November 30th 2017 @ 11:26am
        PiratesRugby said | November 30th 2017 @ 11:26am | ! Report

        Well said CP.

      • Roar Guru

        November 30th 2017 @ 2:28pm
        Fionn said | November 30th 2017 @ 2:28pm | ! Report

        I very rarely agree with you, Cynical Play, but very well said. Thank you for that, I agree wholeheartedly.

      • November 30th 2017 @ 4:00pm
        scottd said | November 30th 2017 @ 4:00pm | ! Report

        Those are frightening stats mate. Thanks for posting them.

      • December 2nd 2017 @ 9:36am
        The Slow Eater said | December 2nd 2017 @ 9:36am | ! Report

        Great post thanks. And great article too Alan. The domestic violence against women in this country is a national disgrace. The more we talk about it the more we realise what a problem it is and we can teach our children that this is not acceptable.

    • Roar Guru

      November 30th 2017 @ 7:33am
      Fionn said | November 30th 2017 @ 7:33am | ! Report

      Great article, Allan.

      Thank you.

    • Roar Guru

      November 30th 2017 @ 7:46am
      Harry Jones said | November 30th 2017 @ 7:46am | ! Report

      Thank you for this thoughtful article.